70 Taj Mahal Interesting Facts – Agra | In Night | Interior | Inside
The Taj Mahal is a mausoleum positioned in Agra, India. It is among the most recognizable buildings on the planet. It was constructed by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in reminiscence of his third spouse, Mumtaz Mahal. It is broadly thought-about as probably the most lovely buildings on the planet and stands as an emblem of everlasting love. Taj Mahal is the best instance of the Mughal structure, a mode that mixes parts from Persian, Islamic, and Indian architectural kinds.
The Taj Mahal facts
In its harmonious proportions and its fluid incorporation of ornamental parts, the Taj Mahal is distinguished because of the most interesting instance of the Mughal architecture, a mix of Indian, Persian, and Islamic kinds.
Other points of interest embrace twin mosque buildings (positioned symmetrically on both sides of the mausoleum), beautiful gardens, and a museum.
One of essentially the most lovely structural compositions on the planet, the Taj Mahal can also be one of many world’s most iconic monuments, visited by hundreds of thousands of vacationers every year. The complicated was designated a UNESCO World Heritage website in 1983.
1. Taj Mahal History
The plans for the complicated have been attributed to numerous architects of the interval, although the chief architect was most likely Ustad Aḥmad Lahawrī, an Indian of Persian descent.
The 5 principal parts of the complicated—predominant gateway, backyard, mosque, jawāb (actually “answer”; a constructing mirroring the mosque), and mausoleum (together with its 4 minarets)—
had been conceived and designed as a unified entity in accordance with the tenets of Mughal constructing apply, which allowed no subsequent addition or alteration. Building commenced about 1632.
More than 20,000 employees had been employed from India, Persia, the Ottoman Empire, and Europe to finish the mausoleum itself by about 1638–39; the adjunct buildings had been completed by 1643, and ornament work continued till not less than 1647. In total, construction of the 42-acre (17-hectare) complicated spanned 22 years.
A convention relates that Shah Jahān initially meant to construct one other mausoleum throughout the river to deal with his personal stays.
That construction was to have been constructed of black marble, and it was to have been linked by a bridge to the Taj Mahal. He was deposed in 1658 by his son Aurangzeb, nevertheless, and was imprisoned for the remainder of his life in Agra Fort.
2. Design and Construction of the Taj Mahal
Named the Taj Mahal in honor of Mumtaz Mahal, the mausoleum was constructed of white marble inlaid with semi-precious stones (together with jade, crystal, lapis lazuli, amethyst, and turquoise) forming intricate designs in a way generally known as pietra dura.
Its central dome reaches a height of 240 feet (73 meters) and is surrounded by 4 smaller domes; 4 slender towers, or minarets, stood on the corners.
In accordance with the traditions of Islam, verses from the Quran had been inscribed in calligraphy on the arched entrances to the mausoleum, along with quite a few different sections of the complicated.
Inside the mausoleum, an octagonal marble chamber adorned with carvings and semi-precious stones housed the cenotaph, or false tomb, of Mumtaz Mahal. The actual sarcophagus containing her precise stays lay beneath, at garden level.
The remainder of the Taj Mahal complicated included a predominant gateway of red sandstone and a square backyard divided into quarters by long swimming pools of water, in addition to a red sandstone mosque and an equivalent construction referred to as a jawab (or “mirror”) immediately throughout from the mosque.
Traditional Mughal constructing apply would permit no future alterations to be made to the complicated.
As the story goes, Shah Jahan meant to construct a second grand mausoleum throughout the Yamuna River from the Taj Mahal, the place his personal stays can be buried when he died; the 2 buildings had been to have been linked by a bridge.
In reality, Aurangzeb (Shah Jahan’s third son with Mumtaz Mahal) deposed his ailing father in 1658 and took energy himself. Shah Jahan lived out the final years of his life below home arrest in a tower of the Red Fort at Agra, with a view of the majestic resting place he had constructed for his spouse; when he died in 1666, he was buried next to her.
3. Layout and Architecture
Resting in the course of a large plinth 23 feet (7 meters) high, the mausoleum correct is of white marble that displays hues in accordance with the depth of daylight or moonlight.
It has 4 almost equivalent facades, every with a large central arch rising to 108 feet (33 meters) at its apex and chamfered (slanted) corners incorporating smaller arches.
The majestic central dome, which reaches a height of 240 feet (73 meters) on the tip of its finial, is surrounded by 4 lesser domes. The acoustics inside the main dome trigger the one observe of a flute to reverberate on 5 times.
The inside of the mausoleum is organized around an octagonal marble chamber ornamented with low-relief carvings and semiprecious stones (pietra dura).
Therein are the cenotaphs of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahān. Those false tombs are enclosed by a finely wrought filigree marble display screen. Beneath the tombs, at backyard level, lie the true sarcophagi.
Standing gracefully other than the central construction, at every one of the 4 corners of the sq. plinth, are elegant minarets.
The southern finish of the complicated is graced by a large red sandstone gateway with a recessed central arch two tales high. White marble paneling across the arch is inlaid with black Qurʾānic lettering and floral designs.
The predominant arch is flanked by two pairs of smaller arches. Crowning the northern and southern facades of the gateway are matching rows of white chattris (chhattris; cupola-like buildings), 11 to every facade, accompanied by skinny decorative minarets that rise to some 98 feet (30 meters).
At the 4 corners of the construction are octagonal towers capped with bigger chattris.
Flanking the mausoleum close to the northwestern and northeastern edges of the backyard, respectively, are two symmetrically equivalent buildings—the mosque, which faces east, and its jawāb, which faces west and offers aesthetic steadiness.
Built of red Sikri sandstone with marble-necked domes and architraves, the distinction in each color and texture with the mausoleum’s white marble.
The backyard is about out alongside classical Mughal traces—a square quartered by long watercourses (swimming pools)—with strolling paths, fountains, and decorative bushes.
Enclosed by the partitions and buildings of the complicated, it offers a placing strategy to the mausoleum, which could be seen mirrored within the backyard’s central swimming pools.
Two notable ornamental options are repeated all through the complicated: pietra dura and Arabic calligraphy.
As embodied within the Mughal craft, pietra dura (Italian: “hard stone”) incorporates the inlay of semiprecious stones of assorted colors, together with lapis lazuli, jade, crystal, turquoise, and amethyst, in extremely formalized and intertwining geometric and floral designs.
The colors serve to average the dazzling expanse of the white Makrana marble. Under the course of Amānat Khan al-Shīrāzī, verses from the Qurʾān had been inscribed throughout quite a few sections of the Taj Mahal in calligraphy, central to Islamic inventive custom.
One of the inscriptions within the sandstone gateway is named Daybreak and invitations the trustworthy to enter paradise. Calligraphy additionally encircles the hovering arched entrances to the mausoleum correct.
To guarantee a uniform look from the vantage level of the terrace, the lettering will increase in size in accordance with its relative height and distance from the viewer.
4. Taj Mahal Inspiration
The Taj Mahal was commissioned by Shah Jahan in 1631, to be constructed within the reminiscence of his spouse Mumtaz Mahal, who died on 17 June that year, whereas giving delivery to their 14th youngster, Gauhara Begum.
Construction began in 1632, and the mausoleum was accomplished in 1648, whereas the encircling buildings and backyard had been completed 5 years later.
The imperial court docket documenting Shah Jahan’s grief after the demise of Mumtaz Mahal illustrates the love story held because of the inspiration for the Taj Mahal.
5. Timing Is Everything at Taj Mahal
The Taj Mahal is open year-round, although on Fridays it’s solely accessible to working towards Muslims who go to the mosque.
Otherwise, vacationers can go to the Taj from dawn to sundown, all year.
If you need to see the Taj Mahal on a Friday, you may view its exterior from the Mehtab Bagh, on the opposite facet of the Yamuna River.
The time of year is one other consideration to consider when planning a Taj Mahal goes to.
The temperatures are most nice from October by means of February; warmth and smog are at their worst from March by means of June, and the monsoon season brings rain from July by means of September.
The time of day issues, too. Dawn goes to affords superbly smooth light and fewer crowds, although mosquitoes are an issue (put on insect repellent).
Afternoons see more visitors, but the robust daylight makes the white marble glow. Full moon visits may also be organized and could be breathtaking.
The tomb is the central focus of your complete complicated of the Taj Mahal.
It is a big, white marble construction standing on a square plinth and consists of a symmetrical construction with an iwan (an arch-shaped doorway) topped by a big dome and finial.
Like most Mughal tombs, the fundamental parts are Persian in origin.
The complicated is about round a big 300-meter (980 ft) sq. charbagh or Mughal backyard. The backyard makes use of raised pathways that divide every one of the four quarters of the backyard into 16 sunken parterres or flowerbeds.
Halfway between the tomb and gateway within the center of the backyard is a raised marble water tank with a reflecting pool positioned on a north-south axis to reflect the picture of the mausoleum.
The elevated marble water tank is named al Hawd al-Kawthar in reference to the “Tank of Abundance” promised to Muhammad.
8. Expect Security Lines
Before visitors are allowed entry contained in the Taj Mahal gates, everybody should move by means of a gender-specific safety line that features a pat-down from a guard. Here’s what you can’t carry: tripods, meals, gum, drinks (other than a water bottle), tobacco merchandise, headphones, chargers, flags, books, and drones.
What are you able to carry? An umbrella, a single bottle of water, a camera, a selfie stick, and a cell phone. Women can carry small purses inside, although all luggage will undergo an X-ray machine and could also be checked by hand. If you do carry contraband, there are lockers for lease simply outdoors the complicated gates.
9. Outlying buildings
The Taj Mahal complicated is bordered on three sides by crenelated red sandstone partitions; the facet dealing with the river is open. Outside the partitions are a number of extra mausoleums, together with these of Shah Jahan’s different wives, and a bigger tomb for Mumtaz’s favorite servant.
These buildings, composed primarily of red sandstone, are typical of the smaller Mughal tombs of the period. The garden-facing internal sides of the wall are fronted by columned arcades, a function typical of Hindu temples which were later included in Mughal mosques.
The wall is interspersed with domed chattris, and small buildings that will have been viewing areas or watch towers just like the Music House, which is now used as a museum.
10. Exterior decorations
The exterior decorations of the Taj Mahal are among the many most interesting in Mughal structure. As the floor space modifications, the decorations are refined proportionally.
The ornamental parts had been created by making use of paint, stucco, stone inlays, or carvings. In line with the Islamic prohibition in opposition to the usage of anthropomorphic varieties, the ornamental parts could be grouped into both calligraphy, summary varieties, or vegetative motifs.
Throughout the complicated are passages from the Qur’an that comprise among the ornamental parts. Recent scholarship means that Amanat Khan selected the passages.
The calligraphy on the Great Gate reads “O Soul, thou art at rest. Return to the Lord at peace with Him, and He at peace with you.”
11. Taj Mahal Construction
The Taj Mahal is constructed on a parcel of land to the south of the walled city of Agra. Shah Jahan introduced Maharajah Jai Singh with a big palace within the center of Agra in alternate for the land.
An area of roughly 1.2 hectares (three acres) was excavated, stuffed with filth to cut back seepage, and leveled at 50 meters (160 ft) above the riverbank. In the tomb space, wells had been dug and stuffed with stone and rubble to type the footings of the tomb.
Instead of lashed bamboo, workmen constructed a colossal brick scaffold that mirrored the tomb. The scaffold was so monumental that foremen estimated it could take years to dismantle.
The Taj Mahal was constructed utilizing supplies from throughout India and Asia. It is believed over 1,000 elephants had been used to move constructing supplies. It took the efforts of 22,000 laborers, painters, embroidery artists, and stonecutters to form the Taj Mahal.
The translucent white marble was introduced from Makrana, Rajasthan, the jasper from Punjab, jade, and crystal from China.
The turquoise was from Tibet and the Lapis lazuli from Afghanistan, whereas the sapphire got here from Sri Lanka and the carnelian from Arabia.
In all, twenty-eight varieties of treasured and semi-precious stones had been inlaid into the white marble.
12. Wear Shoe Covers at Taj Mahal
At the doorway, all visitors obtain a pair of disposable shoe covers. You’ll need to put on them, or stroll barefoot (a lot of Indian children go this route), when you plan on going contained in the Taj. This is an effort to guard the ivory marble flooring.
13. Be one of the best walkers
In an effort to cut back on pollution, visitors of any type shouldn’t be allowed close to the Taj Mahal complicated.
In reality, the industry in Agra is severely restricted to chop down on damaging smog. Tour buses and vehicles park a couple of kilometers away from the doorway. Visitors both stroll to the complicated or hop on massive digital shuttles.
The stroll is lined with reward retailers, informal eating places, and aggressive pedestrian distributors attempting to promote vacationers all the pieces from Taj Mahal snow globes to postcards.
Sprinkle in stray dogs, roaming cattle, and food-snatching monkeys, and also you’ve set the generally wild scene to and from the Taj Mahal’s entrances.
14. Interior ornament
The inside chamber of the Taj Mahal reaches far past conventional ornamental parts. The inlay work shouldn’t be pietra dura, however a lapidary of treasured and semiprecious gemstones.
The internal chamber is an octagon with the design permitting for entry from every face, though solely the door dealing with the backyard to the south is used. The inside partitions are about 25 meters (82 ft) high and are topped by a “false” inside dome embellished with a solar motif.
Eight pishtaq arches outline the house at ground level and, as with the outside, every decrease pishtaq is topped by a second pishtaq about halfway up the wall.
The 4 central higher arches type balconies or viewing areas, and every balcony’s exterior window has an intricate display screen or jali minimize from marble. In addition to the light from the balcony screens, light enters by means of roof openings lined by chattris on the corners.
The octagonal marble display screen or jali bordering the cenotaphs is constructed from eight marble panels carved by means of intricate pierce work. The remaining surfaces are inlaid in delicate detail with semi-precious stones forming twining vines, fruits, and flowers.
Each chamber wall is extremely embellished with dado bas-relief, intricate lapidary inlay, and refined calligraphy panels which reflect, in little element, the design parts seen all through the outside of the complicated.
15. Time to offer a return
Visiting the Taj Mahal is a wonderful option to assist tourism in Agra, however, it’s additionally necessary to offer back to small scale native companies. Sheroes Hangout, a couple of 10-minute drive from the Taj, is a should go to.
The pay-what-you-can chai store and cafe are run by ladies who had been victims of vicious acid assaults.
Apart from lunch and coffee, visitors can even watch a brief documentary in regards to the history of acid assaults in India and peruse a present store of things made by native artists. Proceeds go to supporting the ladies and altering legal guidelines. It’s really an uplifting and academic experience that you simply won’t overlook.
16. Tourism at Taj Mahal
The Taj Mahal attracts a lot of vacationers. UNESCO documented more than 2 million visitors in 2001, which had elevated to about 7–8 million in 2014. A two-tier pricing system is in place, with a considerably decrease entrance price for Indian residents and a more costly one for foreigners.
In 2018, the price for Indian residents was 50 INR, for overseas vacationers 1,100 INR. Most vacationers go within the cooler months of October, November, and February.
Polluting visitors shouldn’t be allowed close to the complicated and vacationers should both stroll from parking areas or catch an electrical bus. The Khawasspuras (northern courtyards) are presently being restored to be used as a brand new customer center.
In 2019, with a view to deal with overtourism, the positioning instituted fines for visitors who stayed longer than three hours.
17. Expect to Take Selfies—and Star in Them
Of course, you’re going to need a memento selfie at this marvel. One factor to notice: If you’re a feminine Westerner, you could end up approached by Indians who need to take a photograph with you.
While the eye could be enjoyable and flattering at first, previous vacationers have felt mobbed and uncomfortable with the eye. If you don’t need to take images with strangers, it’s greatest to politely decline the first one who asks for one. Agreeing to a single picture unit the precedent that you’re open for selfie business.
18. Dress Appropriately
While there isn’t a strictly enforced gown code on the Taj Mahal, visitors ought to gown modestly. The rule of thumb, or actually the rule of shoulders and knees, is to maintain them lined.
Women can simply wrap a light-weight scarf around their shoulders in the event that they’re sporting a tank top. Don’t overlook to use sunscreen, and produce sun shades and a hat. If you need to pop in images, don daring colors like blue and pink, which look lovely in opposition to the white marble.
19. You Only Get Three Hours
As of 2019, there’s a time limit to go to the Taj Mahal. To stop overcrowding and harm, the UNESCO World Heritage website has already capped the variety of visitors per day at 40,000 and raised costs from 50 rupees to 250 rupees for Indian residents, and from about $16 to $19 for worldwide visitors.
The newest measure is charging visitors who linger longer than three hours; the quantity is equal to the unique ticket worth. Turnstiles on the exits implement the time restrictions. If you keep over the time restrict, anticipate to pay up.
20. Don’t Miss the Big Picture…
There are many big issues to see in the Taj. It’s straightforward to get caught up within the crowds and vying for one of the best selfie angles on the Taj Mahal, but take a deep breath and respect what you’re actually taking a look at.
The Taj Mahal was constructed with excellent symmetry in a time before energy instruments. There’s nothing behind the complicated to remove from or interrupt the view—a tremendous feat in modern-day Agra.
21. … or the Small Details
There are many subtle issues in Taj. Once you’ve absorbed the minarets, twin mosques, and glowing white marble dome, slim your focus. Emperor Shah Jahan’s artisans spared no expense when it got here to including beautiful particulars.
Black onyx calligraphy, inlaid jewels, and glowing gemstones are embedded all through the partitions and exteriors of the complicated. The reflection swimming pools and gardens add one other layer of magnificence and precision planning.
- Many gardens encompass the Taj Mahal.
- The Taj Mahal’s gardens presently have a special design from the unique one.
- The Taj Mahal stands in the course of a fancy overlaying 170,000 m².
- Between 7 to eight million people go to the Taj Mahal in a single year.
- The Taj Mahal has a marble gatehouse.
- Early Europeans made up many tales in regards to the Taj Mahal.
- The Taj Mahal might have had a sister constructing on the opposite side of the Yamuna River.
- Other necessary tombs encompass the Taj Mahal.
- The monument’s domes are notably well-liked with visitors, in addition to the fascinating tomb chambers. Meanwhile, the ‘Paradise Gardens’ are the place you will discover the enduring gardens and water options.
- The Taj Mahal was constructed within the 17th century by emperor Shah Jahan in reminiscence of his beloved spouse Mumtaz Mahal.
- Tourists can solely keep on the Taj Mahal for as much as three hours at a time.
- The Taj Mahal’s mosque holds prayers each Friday from 12 to 2 within the afternoon.
- The Taj Mahal drew inspiration from older buildings.
- The Taj Mahal impressed a brand new evolution for Mughal structure.
- The Taj Mahal’s shade can change based mostly on the light of the time of day.
- Visiting dignitaries generally go to the Taj Mahal when in India.
- The Taj Mahal has more symbolism to it than most assume.
- Lego sells a model of the Taj Mahal.
- Taj Mahal means ‘Crown Palace’ in Urdu.
- Mumtaz Mahal was initially buried in Burhanpur, the place she died, however, this was not meant as her ultimate resting spot. In 1663 her body was disinterred and delivered to Agra, the place she was buried in a small building on the banks of the river Yamuna. (The Taj Mahal sits on the identical banks of the river).
- It took over 22 years for the Taj Mahal to be accomplished, from the white marble dome construction to the landscaped gardens and water options.
- The Taj Mahal’s design is particularly meant to guard the tombs.
- Shah Jahan particularly honored the person behind the inscriptions of the Taj Mahal.
- It’s possible to go to the monument at night-time. However, these slots solely seem for 5 nights a month; a full moon night in addition to the 2 nights before and after. However, authorities wish to change the foundations so as to add more night-time visits for vacationers.
- It took till 1653 for work on the remainder of the encircling complicated to complete.
- Jat invaders from Bharatpur looted the Taj Mahal within the 18th Century.
- The Taj Mahal complicated started falling into disrepair by the late-19th Century.
- The Taj Mahal stands 73 meters tall at its highest level.
- Indian vacationers pay solely 50 INR to go to the Taj Mahal.
- In distinction, overseas vacationers should pay 1,100 INR to go to the Taj Mahal.
- Shah Jahan commissioned the development of the Taj Mahal in 1631.
- Construction on the Taj Mahal started a year later in 1632.
- The development of the mausoleum completed in 1648.
- A restoration mission launched by the British Viceroy, Lord Curzon, repaired the complicated by 1908.
- The Indian authorities disguised the Taj Mahal in WWII to forestall Japanese bombers from probably concentrating on it.
- Shah Jahan didn’t initially plan to share the Taj Mahal along with his spouse.
- The Taj Mahal’s outer decorations are closely influenced by Islam.
- Tourists can go night viewing on the Taj Mahal throughout full moons.
- The Taj Mahal closes in the course of the month of Ramadan.
- The Taj Mahal began as a memorial.
- The Indian authorities once more disguised the Taj Mahal throughout wars with Pakistan in 1965 and 1971 to maintain enemy bombers from concentrating on it.
- Storms broke the Taj Mahal in 2018 and 2020.
- Records estimate it took 22,000 people and 1,000 elephants to construct the Taj Mahal.
- The Taj Mahal’s development supplies got here from everywhere in the world.
- The Taj Mahal value hundreds of thousands to build.
- Pollution is a significant concern for the Taj Mahal.
- Pollution as soon as began altering the Taj Mahal’s shade.
- Certain autos aren’t allowed close to the Taj Mahal.
- Dropping water ranges is one other main concern for the Taj Mahal.
- Shah Jahan shares his spouse’s tomb.
- The Emperor and Empress have 2 units of tombs.
- Two buildings face the Taj Mahal from east and west.
- The Taj Mahal Complex solely has three partitions.
- The British as soon as looted the Taj Mahal.
- In 1983 the Taj Mahal grew to become a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It was (and nonetheless is) described by the organization as “the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world’s heritage”.
- The outer dome measures simply over 44 meters in height, whereas the internal dome reaches simply over 24 meters.
- 22 Hindu nationalists have tried to revise history with regard to the Taj Mahal.
- The Taj Mahal’s wood basis can also be a trigger for concern.
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