Hippopotamus, (Hippopotamus amphibius) is considered as the second largest mammals on the land, also called hippo or water horse, in common, is an amphibious African ungulate mammal. Hippopotamus facts are very interesting as well as mysterious.
The source says, the common hippopotamus (/ˌhɪpəˈpɒtəməs/ hip-uh-POT-uh-muh s; Hippopotamus amphibius) or hippo is a large, mostly herbivorous (vegetarian), semiaquatic mammal and ungulate native to sub-Saharan Africa.. It is one of only two species in the Hippopotamidae family, the other being Pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis or Hexaprotodon liberiensis). The name comes from the ancient Greek for “river horse”. After elephants and rhinoceros, the common hippopotamus is the third largest type of mammalian mammal and the heaviest circulating arterodactyl. Despite its physical resemblance to pigs and other landowners, even Todd Ungulate, the closest surviving relatives of the hippopotamidae are cetaceans (whales, dolphins, porpoises, etc.) from which they diverged some 55 million years ago.
Common hippos express their barrel-shaped torques, wide opening mouths with large canine tusks, almost hairless bodies, column legs, and large scales; Adult males and females average 1,500 kg (3,310 lbs) and 1,300 kg (2,870 lbs), respectively. Despite its stocky size and short legs, it is capable of running less than 30 km / h (19 miles).
The common hippopotamus lives in rivers, lakes, and mangrove wetlands, where regional bulls preside over a stretch of river, and there are between five and thirty females and young. During the day they stay cool in the water or in the mud; Both breeding and delivery occur in the water. They come in the evening to graze on the grass while the hippopotamus is resting near each other in the water, grazing is a solitary activity and the hippos are not territorial in the field. Hippopotamus is among the most dangerous animals on earth because it is extremely invasive and incredible. Their habitat is reduced and their meat and ivory canine teeth are threatened by predators.
Five hippos are described based on size differences in their skull and geographical differences.
- Great northern hippopotamus or Nile hippopotamus H. a. amphibius – (the nominate subspecies) that extend from Egypt, where they are now extinct, to the Tanzania and Mozambique banks on the Nile River.
- East African hippopotamus H. a. kiboko – Kenya in the Great Lakes region of Africa, and Somalia in the Horn of Africa. Wider nasal and more empty interconnected region
- Cape hippopotamus or South African hippopotamus H. a. capensis – most of the sub-species of skulls from Zambia to South Africa
- West African hippopotamus or Tchad hippopotamus H. a. tschadensis – Across West Africa by name, Chad, slightly shorter and wider face, with prominent orbit
- Angola hippopotamus H. a. constrictus – Named for its deepest pre-nascent alliance in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Namibia in Namibia, South America
The most recent theory of the origin of hippopotamidae suggests that the hippos and whales share a common semi-precursor that was isolated from other artiodactyls nearly a million years ago. This supposed paternal group probably split into two branches about 54 million years ago.
Hippopotamidae is believed to have developed in Africa; The oldest hippopotamid kennipotamus species, which lived in Africa 16 to 8 million years ago. Although hippopotamid species spread throughout Asia and Europe, hippopotamus was never found in America, although the genus Oligocene migrated to North America early. From 7.5 to 1.8 million years ago, the ancestor of the modern hippopotamus, Archeopotamus, lived in Africa and the Middle East.
Hippopotamus is one of the largest living ground mammals, only smaller than elephants and some rhinoceros. Among the African megaphones that exist behind two African elephant species, they are smaller than the average white rhinoceros but larger with body mass than black rhinoceros and giraffes. The average adult weight is about 6kg (4,5 lbs), and for men and women, respectively, 5kg (2,770 lbs), very large males 2,2kg (5 lbs) and exceptional males 2, 2 , 60০ kg (3,5 lbs) and 1,20 kg (lbs, 6 lbs), have been reported. Male hippos continue to grow throughout life when females reach their maximum weight at 25 years of age.
The hippo’s jaw is driven by a larger master and a well-developed digastric; The latter goes back and forth on the highway. The jaw hinges are located far enough behind to allow the animal to open its mouth at about 180 °. The bite force of an adult woman has been measured as 8,100 newtons (1,800 lbs). Hippopotamus teeth make themselves sharp when grinding together. Lower canines and lower incisors are enlarged, especially in men, and continue to increase. The incisors reach 40 cm (1 ft 4 in), while the canines reach 50 cm (1 ft 8 in). Canines and incisors are used to fight and have no role in feeding. The hippos rely on their broad horny lips to draw and pull grass which is then ground by the molasses The hippos are considered as pseudoruminescent; It has a complex three-chambered stomach but does not “chew on”.
Unlike most other semi animals, the hippopotamus has very short hair. The skin is 6 cm (2 inches) thick, providing great protection against intruders and predators. In contrast, its subcutaneous fat level is thin. The upper parts of the animals are from purple gray to blue-black, while the lower parts and regions around the eyes and ears may be brownish-pink. Their skin conceals a natural sunscreen ingredient that is of red color. Discharge is sometimes referred to as “blood sweating”, but not blood or sweat. This discharge is initially colorless and turns red-orange within minutes, eventually turning brown. Two harmful pigments have been identified, one is red (hipposudoric acid) and one orange (norhipsudoric acid).
The life span of a hippo is usually 40-50 years. Donna Hippo was the oldest living hippo among the prisoners. He lived at the Mascar Park Zoo in Evansville, Indiana, USA, until he died at the age of 27.
Genetic evidence suggests that ordinary hippos in Africa experienced a population expansion during or after the Pleistocene, responsible for the growth of reservoirs at the end of the epoch. The conservation of these studies has important implications as hippo populations across the continent are currently threatened with losing access to freshwater. The hippos are also controlled prey and prey hunters. In May 2006, the hippopotamus was identified as an unprotected species in the IUCN Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), with an estimated population of 125,000 to 150,000 hippos, a decrease of 7% and 20% from IUCN’s 1996 study. Zambia (5,7) and Tanzania (26,3,7,3) are the largest populations.
Unlike all other large ground mammals, hippos are a semiotic habitat that spends days on lakes and rivers. They are found in both savannah and forest areas. Suitable habitat requires sufficient water and grass nearby. Large densities of animals live in calm waters, often with strong, smooth beaches. Very few men can be found in fast water in rocky gorges. While hippos live mostly in freshwater habitats, the majority of West African populations live in estuarine waters and can be found at sea. Except for eating, most hippopotamus lives occur in water. The hippos leave the water in the evening, sometimes traveling inland, sometimes grazing on short grasses up to 10 kilometers (6 miles), which is their main source. They spend four to five hours on grazing and can consume up to 68kg (150 lbs) of grass per night.
Like almost any herb, they consume other plants if they are introduced to them, but in their diet of nature, grasses are almost entirely formed, with only minimal consumption of aquatic plants. Hippos are born with an germ-free intestine and need to receive bacteria from their mother’s feces to digest the plants. There are other reports on meat-eating, and even narcissism and prophecy. Hippo’s stomach anatomy is not compatible with carnivorous and eating meat is most likely due to unhealthy behavior or nutritional stress.
Hippopotamus coexists with a variety of predatory predators. Blue crocodiles, lions and stained hyenas are known to hunt young hippos. However, adult hippopotamus is not usually hunted by other animals due to their aggression and size.
Women and young men are often different. Although hippos are close to each other, they do not seem to form social bonds except between mothers and daughters, and they are not social animals. The reasons they roam together are unknown. The hippopotamus is the only area in the water, where a bull, on a small end of the river, has an average length of 250 m (270 yd) and 10 females. The largest pod can contain more than 100 hippos. Young bachelors are allowed to stretch the bull, as long as they treat the bull politely. Hippo territories exist to establish the right of confluence. Within the shoots, the hippos are separated by gender. The Bachelor Lounge to other Bachelors, the ladies and the bulls with other ladies are her own. When hippies emerge from the water, they do so individually.
The hippos identify their territory as defecated. During stool deposition, the hippos spin their tail to distribute their excreta over a larger area. “Ewing” serves as a threat display. While fighting, the male hippos use their incisors to attack each other and trap their big canines for injury. When hippos become populated or habitat is depleted, bulls occasionally attempt to kill infants, but this behavior is not common under normal circumstances. Hippo brutality cases have been documented but it is thought that it is frustrating or ill-behaving hippos.
Female hippos reach sexual maturity at five to six years of age and have a gestation period of eight months. Males mature at about 7.5 years of age. A survey of the breeding behavior of hippopotamia in Uganda found that peak conception was formed at the end of the wet season in summer and peak was born at the beginning of the wet season in late winter.
Studies of hippos in Zambia and South Africa also show evidence of birth at the beginning of the wet season. After becoming pregnant, a female hippopotamus usually does not begin ovulation again for 17 months.
Confusion occurs in the water, most of the women are submerged in the face, his head is raised to draw the breath. Female hippos differentiate themselves in 10-15 days to give birth and return. Baby hippos are born under water, weighing 25 to 50 kg (55 and 110 lbs) weighing approximately 127 cm (1.717 feet) and must swim to the surface to take their first breath. A mother usually gives birth to a calf, although twins also occur. Young people often rest on their mothers’ backs when the water is too deep for them, and they swim underwater to suck. When mothers release water, they suck on the ground.
The hippopotamus is considered to be very aggressive and is often regarded as charging and invading boats. Hippopotamus has long been a popular zoo animal.